LUG Community Blogs

Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Mon, 22/04/2013 - 10:09

Since libguestfs 1.20 it has been possible to use rsync to upload or download files to a disk image incrementally. This is one way to do backups, but note that it won’t work on live guests unless you take a snapshot.

rsync involves using a network connection into or out of the appliance, and is therefore a lot more involved to set up. The script below shows one way to do this, by running an rsync daemon on the host, and letting the libguestfs appliance connect to it.

The script runs rsync inside the appliance, copying /home from the attached disk image out to /tmp/backup on the host. If the operation is repeated, then only incrementally changed files will be copied out. (To incrementally delete files on the target, add the deletedest:true flag).

Note you will need to open port 2999 on your host’s firewall for this to work.

#!/bin/bash - set -x # The target directory. mkdir -p /tmp/backup # Create the daemon. rm -f /tmp/ cat <<EOF > /tmp/rsyncd.conf port = 2999 pid file = /tmp/ [backup] path = /tmp/backup use chroot = false read only = false EOF rsync --daemon --config=/tmp/rsyncd.conf # Run guestfish and attach to the guest. guestfish --ro --network -a /dev/fedora/f19rawhidex32 -i <<EOF trace on rsync-out /home rsync://rjones@ archive:true EOF # Kill the rsync daemon. kill `cat /tmp/`
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Richard WM Jones: 20130420_175710.jpg

Planet GLLUG - Sat, 20/04/2013 - 17:59

Inside there’s a ring for sockets and a lighting circuit. The windows and doors are pre-made double-glazed units.

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Richard WM Jones: image

Planet GLLUG - Fri, 19/04/2013 - 15:15

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Richard WM Jones: 20130419_094942.jpg

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 18/04/2013 - 18:39

Update: Further progress this morning …

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 18/04/2013 - 17:26

Dominic Cleal’s short introduction to the Augeas configuration API.

We use Augeas a lot in libguestfs and virt-v2v, and it’s been very effective for us.

I asked Dominic how he made this video.

He uses gtk-recordmydesktop, max 100/100 audio/video quality, 30fps, 2 channel audio at 48kHz.

Sound and video are recorded at the same time, with a Sennheiser headset.

Editing is done in kdenlive.

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Richard WM Jones: 20130418_145150.jpg

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 18/04/2013 - 14:55

The cabin has a double wall which will contain insulation. Shown here is the ring main for the four sets of sockets around the room.

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Richard WM Jones: 20130417_170829.jpg

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 18/04/2013 - 13:17

This trench will take 1 armoured mains cable and 2 cat 7 network cables.

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Wed, 17/04/2013 - 14:31

Also (not shown) they dug a trench down the side of the garden for electrics and network cables. We’re going to run some hefty armoured cable, plus two or three cat 7 network cables, covered with bricks and warning tape, at a depth of 18″ (mandated by building regulations).

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Richard WM Jones: office-3

Planet GLLUG - Tue, 16/04/2013 - 16:11

As some readers might know, I work from home, and have worked from home for about 12 years. However I’ve never had a proper dedicated office, just a corner of a second bedroom or a bit of space on a sofa. That’s about to change.

Tomorrow, work starts on constructing a real office in my garden.

Work already started (for me) about a month ago, when I took down a shed and jack-hammered a patio to bits:

Shifting the whole lot into two skips:

Resulting in this empty, mostly flat space (about 20′ wide and 16′ deep, damn you council for chopping that tree down at the back …):

To be continued …

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Tue, 16/04/2013 - 15:23

New in libguestfs ≥ 1.21.30 is the ability to use guestfish and some of the virt tools with remote disks.

Currently you can use remote disks over NBD, GlusterFS, Ceph, Sheepdog and (recently upstream) SSH.

For this example I’ll use SSH because it needs no setup, although this requires absolutely the latest qemu and libguestfs (both from git).

Since we don’t have libvirt support for ssh yet, so this only works with the direct backend:

$ export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct

I can use a ssh:// URI to add disks with guestfish, guestmount and most of the virt tools. For example:

$ virt-rescue -a ssh://localhost/tmp/f17x64.img [... lots of boot messages ...] Welcome to virt-rescue, the libguestfs rescue shell. Note: The contents of / are the rescue appliance. You have to mount the guest's partitions under /sysroot before you can examine them. ><rescue> mount /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root /sysroot ><rescue> cat /sysroot/etc/redhat-release Fedora release 17 (Beefy Miracle)

Apart from being a tiny bit slower, it just works as if the disk was local:

$ virt-df -a ssh://localhost/tmp/f17x64.img Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% f17x64.img:/dev/sda1 487652 63738 398314 14% f17x64.img:/dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root 28316680 4285576 22586036 16% $ guestmount -a ssh://localhost/tmp/f17x64.img -i /tmp/mnt $ ls /tmp/mnt bin dev home lib64 media opt root sbin sys usr boot etc lib lost+found mnt proc run srv tmp var $ cat /tmp/mnt/etc/redhat-release Fedora release 17 (Beefy Miracle) $ guestunmount /tmp/mnt
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Rev. Simon Rumble: Snorkelling photos

Planet GLLUG - Mon, 15/04/2013 - 23:41

I've been getting into snorkelling a bit recently. I've always enjoyed it but recently I bought some good quality gear, replacing the toy shop crap I've been using. It's another world with good equipment! It's not easy to get time, but so far I've snorkelled Jervis Bay, Bushrangers Bay, Clovelly and The Haven in Terrigal.

My son has been asking what it's like, so I bought the Kogan waterproof camera case for $19. Took it out last weekend for a spin at The Haven but the visibility was terrible. The camera case works a treat though, and I'm looking forward to using it some more. Need to work out a strap to attach it to my arm or something though.

See the full gallery on Posterous

Permalink | Leave a comment  »

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Karanbir Singh: changes

Planet GLLUG - Fri, 12/04/2013 - 00:08


In the last 45 days,'s 2 public facing machines delivered just under 66 TiB of data. So while we try and spread this load a bit ( its growing at 25 - 35% month on month ), we've had to make a few changes.

Firstly, isos are no longer directly downloadable from, you will need to go the torrent route if you want older, deprecated release isos

Secondly, we've turned off multi range requests ( httpd will still accept upto 5 range's, and then block after that )

Over the next few days, we are going to recycle some of the larger disk nodes into; If someone wants to contribute to this effort, please come find us on in channel #centos-devel or #centos-mirror or tweet us @centos or email us the address mentioned at - but keep in mind that need machines with more than 1 TiB of usable space, and more than 300mbps of network capacity, and since we will consume that bandwidth high density hosting facilities with high contention on the links wont work.

- KB

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Fri, 05/04/2013 - 21:56

The qemu ssh block device is now up to version 7 … although sadly not upstream yet.

Nevertheless by applying this patch to libguestfs you can use libguestfs to access remote disks over ssh:

$ export LIBGUESTFS_QEMU=~/d/qemu/qemu.wrapper $ export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct $ ./run ./fish/guestfish Welcome to guestfish, the libguestfs filesystem interactive shell for editing virtual machine filesystems. Type: 'help' for help on commands 'man' to read the manual 'quit' to quit the shell ><fs> add /tmp/f17x64.img readonly:true format:raw \ protocol:ssh server:onuma ><fs> run 100% ⟦▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒⟧ 00:00 ><fs> inspect-os /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root ><fs> inspect-get-product-name /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root Fedora release 17 (Beefy Miracle) ><fs> list-filesystems /dev/sda1: ext4 /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root: ext4 /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_swap: swap ><fs> mount /dev/vg_f17x64/lv_root / ><fs> cat /etc/redhat-release Fedora release 17 (Beefy Miracle)

Everything just works as if this were a local disk.

There are a couple of minor caveats (the major caveat being none of this is upstream): Firstly you have to have ssh-agent set up. Secondly the remote host must be in your known_hosts file (if not, do ssh remotehost first to add it).

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 04/04/2013 - 21:47

Although grub support in libguestfs is currently on hold because of an unfortunate situation, the latest libguestfs now supports SYSLINUX and EXTLINUX, which is (let’s be frank about this) a much simpler and more sane bootloader than grub/grub2.

In fact, you can make a bootable Linux guest real easily now. Here’s a script:

#!/usr/bin/perl # Copyright (C) 2013 Red Hat Inc. # # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by # the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or # (at your option) any later version. # # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the # GNU General Public License for more details. # # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License # along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software # Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. # This ambitious script creates a complete, bootable guest. use strict; use warnings; use Sys::Guestfs; my $disk = "syslinux-guest.img"; # Find prerequisites. my $mbr = "/usr/share/syslinux/mbr.bin"; unless (-f $mbr) { $mbr = "/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin"; unless (-f $mbr) { die "$0: mbr.bin (from SYSLINUX) not found\n"; } } print "mbr: $mbr\n"; my $mbr_data; { local $/ = undef; open MBR, "$mbr" or die "$mbr: $!"; $mbr_data = <MBR>; } die "invalid mbr.bin" unless length ($mbr_data) == 440; my $kernel = `ls -1rv /boot/vmlinuz* | head -1`; chomp $kernel; unless ($kernel) { die "$0: kernel could not be found\n"; } print "kernel: $kernel\n"; print "writing to: $disk ...\n"; # Create the disk. unlink "$disk"; open DISK, ">$disk" or die "$disk: $!"; truncate DISK, 100*1024*1024; close DISK; my $g = Sys::Guestfs->new (); $g->add_drive ($disk, format => "raw"); $g->launch (); unless ($g->feature_available (["syslinux"])) { die "$0: 'syslinux' feature not available in this version of libguestfs\n"; } # Format the disk. $g->part_disk ("/dev/sda", "mbr"); $g->mkfs ("msdos", "/dev/sda1"); $g->mount ("/dev/sda1", "/"); # Install the kernel. $g->upload ($kernel, "/vmlinuz"); # Install the SYSLINUX configuration file. $g->write ("/syslinux.cfg", <<_END); DEFAULT linux LABEL linux SAY Booting the kernel from /vmlinuz KERNEL vmlinuz APPEND ro root=/dev/sda1 _END $g->umount_all (); # Install the bootloader. $g->pwrite_device ("/dev/sda", $mbr_data, 0); $g->syslinux ("/dev/sda1"); $g->part_set_bootable ("/dev/sda", 1, 1); # Finish off. $g->shutdown ();

After running the script, you can try booting the minimal “guest” (note it only contains a kernel, not any userspace):

$ qemu-kvm -hda syslinux-guest.img
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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Tue, 02/04/2013 - 16:40
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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Sun, 31/03/2013 - 18:35

I have no objection if you want to get up an hour earlier. I don’t even object if you think it makes the daylight longer / gives you more sunlight / or whatever silly reasoning you have. Just don’t make me do it too, ‘m kay?

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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Sat, 30/03/2013 - 15:16

The video of Richard Harman’s talk is now online at YouTube. Interesting use of virtualization and tools to analyze malware (in Windows VMs).


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Richard WM Jones: rich

Planet GLLUG - Thu, 28/03/2013 - 20:43

Starting in libguestfs ≥ 1.21.23-2, bash tab completions of guestfish, guestmount and virt-* tools have been rewritten and greatly improved.

Note you will need to install the libguestfs-bash-completion package to enable this feature.

You can now tab complete all long options on most tools:

$ virt-df --[tab] --add --domain --human-readable --uuid --connect --format --inodes --verbose --csv --help --one-per-guest --version $ virt-resize --[tab] --align-first --help --no-extra-partition --alignment --ignore --ntfsresize-force --debug --lvexpand --output-format --debug-gc --lv-expand --quiet --delete --LVexpand --resize --dryrun --LV-expand --resize-force --dry-run --machine-readable --shrink --expand --no-copy-boot-loader --version --format --no-expand-content

Where appropriate, the -d option will now expand to the list of libvirt domains:

# virt-df -d [tab] archlinux20121201x64 f19rawhidex32 f18x64 f19rawhidex64

Finally, guestfish commands are expanded on the command line:

$ guestfish add /tmp/disk : run : list-[tab] list-9p list-events list-md-devices list-devices list-filesystems list-partitions list-disk-labels list-ldm-partitions list-dm-devices list-ldm-volumes

To make this less intrusive, so you can really use it daily, I left the default readline expansions enabled. This means that filenames and so on can continue to be used in every position on the command line, and should mean that bash completions won’t try to be cleverer than the user.

Libguestfs bash completions are also demand-loaded now, so that if you’re not using them, they don’t consume any resources in the shell.

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Dean Wilson: Cisco Routers for the Desperate (2nd edition) - Short Review

Planet GLLUG - Mon, 25/03/2013 - 17:25
Reviewing the second edition of Cisco Routers for the Desperate was quite hard for me as I have very little to add to the Cisco Routers for the Desperate 1st edition review I posted a few years ago. After reading through this update pretty much all those comments still stand. It's an excellent, useful, well written book and the author still has a -distinct- written tone.

I enjoyed the book; I must have considering I bought the second edition! The material has been updated where needed and it's still lacking a section on ACLs so I'll stick to my score of 8/10 for people purchasing this book for the first time and look forward to another refresh in a couple of years time. If you already own the first edition then your choice is a little harder - this book is still an excellent stepping on point for the cost but don't expect much beyond a refresh on the same content.

Disclaimer: Part of my previous review is quoted in the marketing blurb at the front of the book. I did however pay for this book myself.

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